Information

Leo VI Timeline


  • 870

  • 886

  • 886 - 912

  • 894

    Symeon, Tsar of the Bulgars, invades Thrace, then Byzantine territory.

  • 898

  • 900

  • 1 Aug 902

  • 904

    Leo of Tripoli leads an Arab force which sacks Byzantine Thessaloniki and Abydos.

  • 905

    A Byzantine army sacks Arab-held Tarsus.

  • 906

  • 6 Jan 906

  • 907

  • 907

    Oleg, Prince of Kiev, attacks the Byzantine capital Constantinople.

  • 912

    A Byzantine fleet is destroyed by an Arab force off the coast of Chios.

  • 11 May 912


Our History

Front row, L-R: Makalapua Alencastre, the late ʻĪlei Beniamina and Larry Kimura. Back row, L-R: Hōkūlani Cleeland, Kauanoe Kamanā, Kīʻope Raymond and Pila Wilson.

In January 1982, a group of Hawaiian language educators met to discuss strategies to perpetuate the language. From speaking with elders, they knew that raising children in an environment where Hawaiian was the ordinary language of interaction was central to survival of the language. The key would be to re-establish Hawaiian Medium Education schools that existed during the Monarchical Period. They focused their efforts to nurture a new generation of speakers that would be able to describe the world through the lens of their language and culture, as well as master English and other languages using methods that had proven effective in Europe. Thus began the Pūnana Leo preschool and a reemergence of a Hawaiian philosophy of education, now known as the Kumu Honua Mauli Ola.

Pūnana Leo means “nest of voices” and depicts the dominant learning method in these centers as students are “fed” solely their native language and culture much like the way young birds are cared for in their own nests. The first of these preschools was established in Kekaha, Kaua‘i in August 1984. The following year, schools were established in Hilo, Hawai‘i and Honolulu, O‘ahu and continued to spread to other islands thereafter.

‘Aha Pūnana Leo is closely tied to the Māori Kōhanga Reo movement in New Zealand. Indeed, the name Pūnana Leo, which is equivalent to the Māori term Kōhanga Reo, honors those connections and the inspiration provided by the Kōhanga Reo.

Today, a complete preschool through doctoral-level system of education in the state of Hawai‘i is taught entirely through Hawaiian.


1. The reign of Leo VI
2. Romans imitating Saracens?
3. The Byzantine Christian approach to war
4. The ideal Christian general
5. A new Solomon
6. Imperial sacrality in action
7. Leo VI as homilist
8. Byzantines as 'chosen people'
9. Byzantine Christian statecraft.

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The identity of his father is uncertain. His mother was the wife of Basil I but mistress of Michael III.

Leo VI "the Wise" or "the Philosopher" (Greek: Λέων ΣΤ΄, Leōn VI), (September 19, 866 – May 11, 912) was Byzantine emperor from 886 to 912 during one of the most brilliant periods of the state's history.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_VI_the_Wise Leo VI, called the Wise or the Philosopher (Greek: Λέων ΣΤ΄ ὁ Σοφός, Leōn VI ho Sophos, 19 September 866 – 11 May 912), was Byzantine Emperor from 886 to 912. The second ruler of the Macedonian dynasty (although his parentage is unclear), he was very well-read, leading to his epithet. During his reign, the renaissance of letters, begun by his predecessor Basil I, continued but the Empire also saw several military defeats in the Balkans against Bulgaria and against the Arabs in Sicily and the Aegean. His reign also witnessed the formal discontinuation of several ancient Roman institutions, such as the Roman consul and Senate (in this period also known as the Byzantine Senate), which continued to exist in name only and lost much of their original functions and powers.

Born to the empress Eudokia Ingerina, Leo was either the illegitimate son of Emperor Michael III or the second son of his predecessor, Basil I the Macedonian. Eudokia was both Michael III's mistress and Basil’s wife. In 867, Michael was assassinated by Basil, who succeeded him as Emperor. As the second eldest son of the Emperor, Leo was associated on the throne in 870 and became the direct heir on the death of his older half-brother Constantine in 879. However, Leo and Basil did not like each other a relationship that only deteriorated after Eudokia's death, when Leo, unhappy with his marriage to Theophano, took up a mistress in the person of Zoe Zaoutzaina. Basil married Zoe off to an insignificant official, and later almost had Leo blinded when he was accused of conspiring against him. On August 29, 886, Basil died in a hunting accident, though he claimed on his deathbed that there was an assassination attempt in which Leo was possibly involved.

One of the first actions of Leo VI after his succession was the reburial, with great ceremony, of the remains of Michael III in the imperial mausoleum within the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. This contributed to the suspicion that Leo was (or at least believed himself to be) in truth Michael's son. Seeking political reconciliation, the new Emperor secured the support of the officials in the capital, and surrounded himself with bureaucrats like Stylianos Zaoutzes (the father of his mistress, Zoe Zaoutzaina) and the eunuch Samonas, an Arab defector whom Leo raised to the rank of patrikios and who stood in as godfather to Leo’s son, Constantine VII. His attempts to control the great aristocratic families (e.g., the Phokadai and the Doukai) occasionally led to serious conflicts, the most significant being the revolt of Andronikos Doukas in 906.

Leo also attempted to control the church through his appointments to the patriarchate. He dismissed the Patriarch Photios, who had been his tutor, and replaced him with his own 19-year-old brother Stephen in December 886. On Stephen's death in 893, Leo replaced him with Zaoutzes' nominee, Antony II Kauleas, who died in 901. Leo then promoted his own Imperial secretary (mystikos) Nicholas, but suspicions that he was involved in the failed assassination attempt against Leo in 903 as well as his opposition to Leo’s fourth marriage saw Nicholas replaced with Leo’s spiritual father Euthymios in 907.

The magnificent Church of Ayios Lazaros in Larnaca was constructed during the rule of Leo VI in the late 9th century, and it was built after the relics of St. Lazaros were transported from Crete to Constantinople. The church is one of the best examples of Byzantine architecture. Leo also completed work on the Basilika, the Greek translation and update of the law code issued by Justinian I, which had been started during the reign of Basil.

Bishop Liutprand of Cremona gives an account similar to those about Caliph Harun al-Rashid, to the effect that Leo would sometimes disguise himself and go about Constantinople looking for injustice or corruption. According to one story, he was even captured by the city guards during one of his investigations. Late in the evening, he was walking alone and disguised. Though he bribed two patrols with 12 nomismata and moved on, a third city patrol arrested him. When a terrified guardian recognized the jailed ruler in the morning, the arresting officer was rewarded for doing his duty, while the other patrols were dismissed and punished severely.

Leo VI's fortune in war was more mixed than Basil's had been. In indulging his chief counselor Stylianos Zaoutzes, Leo provoked a war with Simeon I of Bulgaria in 894, but he was defeated. Bribing the Magyars to attack the Bulgarians from the north, Leo scored an indirect success in 895. However, deprived of his new allies, he lost the major Battle of Boulgarophygon in 896 and had to make the required commercial concessions and to pay annual tribute.

Although he won a victory in 900 against the Emirate of Tarsus, in which the Arab army was destroyed and the Emir himself captured, in the west the Emirate of Sicily took Taormina, the last Byzantine outpost on the island of Sicily, in 902. Nevertheless, Leo continued to apply pressure on his eastern frontier through the creation of the new thema of Mesopotamia, a Byzantine invasion of Armenia in 902, and the sacking of Theodosiopolis, as well as successful raids in the Arab Thughur.

Then, in 904 the renegade Leo of Tripolis sacked Thessalonica with his pirates – an event described in The Capture of Thessalonica by John Kaminiates – while a large-scale expedition to recover Crete under Himerios in 911� failed disastrously. Nevertheless, the same period also saw the establishment of the important frontier provinces (kleisourai) of Lykandos and Leontokome on territory recently taken from the Arabs. In 907 Constantinople was attacked by the Kievan Rus' under Oleg of Novgorod, who was seeking favourable trading rights with the empire. Leo paid them off, but they attacked again in 911, and a trade treaty was finally signed.

Leo VI caused a major scandal with his numerous marriages which failed to produce a legitimate heir to the throne. His first wife Theophano, whom Basil had forced him to marry on account of her family connections to the Martinakioi, and whom Leo hated, died in 897, and Leo married Zoe Zaoutzaina, the daughter of his adviser Stylianos Zaoutzes, though she died as well in 899. Upon this marriage Leo created the title of basileopatōr ("father of the emperor") for his father-in-law.

After Zoe's death a third marriage was technically illegal, but he married again, only to have his third wife Eudokia Ba໺na die in 901. Instead of marrying a fourth time, which would have been an even greater sin than a third marriage (according to the Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos) Leo took as mistress Zoe Karbonopsina. He married her only after she had given birth to a son in 905, but incurred the opposition of the patriarch. Replacing Nicholas Mystikos with Euthymios, Leo got his marriage recognized by the church (albeit with a long penance attached, and with an assurance that Leo would outlaw all future fourth marriages).

The future Constantine VII was the illegitimate son born before Leo's uncanonical fourth marriage to Zoe Karbonopsina. To strengthen his son's position as heir, Leo had him crowned as co-emperor on May 15, 908, when he was only two years old. Leo VI died on May 11, 912. He was succeeded by his younger brother Alexander, who had reigned as Emperor alongside his father and brother since 879.

Leo VI was a prolific writer, and he produced works on many different topics and in many styles, including political orations, liturgical poems, and theological treatises. On many occasions he would personally deliver highly wrought and convoluted sermons in the churches of Constantinople.

In the subject matter of legal works and treatises, he established a legal commission that carried out his father's original intent of codifying all of existing Byzantine law. The end result was a six-volume work consisting of 60 books, entitled the Basilika. Written in Greek, the Basilika translated and systematically arranged practically all of the laws preserved in the Corpus Juris Civilis, thereby providing a foundation upon which all later Byzantine laws could be built. Leo then began integrating new laws issued during his reign into the Basilika. Called "Novels", or "New Laws", these were codes that dealt with current problems and issues, such as the prohibition on fourth marriages. Both the Basilika and the Novels were concerned with ecclesiastical law (canon law) as well as secular law. Most importantly, from a historical perspective, they finally did away with much of the remaining legal and constitutional architecture that the Byzantine Empire had inherited from the Roman Empire, and even from the days of the Roman Republic. Obsolete institutions such as the Curiae, the Roman Senate, even the Consulate, were finally removed from a legal perspective, even though these still continued in a lesser, decorative form.

The supposed Book of the Eparch and the Kletorologion of Philotheos were also issued under Leo's name and testify to his government’s interest in organization and the maintenance of public order. The Book of the Eparch described the rules and regulations for trade and trade organizations in Constantinople, while the Kletorologion was an attempt to standardize officials and ranks at the Byzantine court. Leo is also the author, or at least sponsor, of the Tactica, a notable treatise on military operations.

Succeeding generations saw Leo as a prophet and a magician, and soon a collection of oracular poems and some short divinatory texts, the so-called Oracles of Leo the Wise, at least in part based on earlier Greek sources, were attached to the Emperor's name in later centuries and were believed to foretell the future of the world.

Finally, Leo is credited with translating the relics of St. Lazarus to Constantinople in the year 890. There are several stichera (hymns) attributed to him that are chanted on Lazarus Saturday in the Eastern Orthodox Church. He also composed hymns that are sung on the Great Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross.

By his first wife, Theophano, Leo VI had one daughter: Eudokia, who died in 892.

By his second wife, Zoe Zaoutzaina, Leo had one daughter: Anna, betrothed and married to the Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Blind, though Dr. Shaun Tougher, Reader in Ancient History at Cardiff University, doubts they were married.

By his third wife, Eudokia Ba໺na, Leo had one son: Basil, who survived for only a few days.

By his fourth wife, Zoe Karbonopsina, Leo had two children: Anna Constantine VII


The LEGO Group History

The name ‘LEGO’ is an abbreviation of the two Danish words “leg godt”, meaning “play well”. It’s our name and it’s our ideal.

The LEGO Group was founded in 1932 by Ole Kirk Kristiansen. The company has passed from father to son and is now owned by Kjeld Kirk Kristiansen, a grandchild of the founder.

It has come a long way over the past almost 85 years - from a small carpenter’s workshop to a modern, global enterprise that is now one of the world’s largest manufacturers of toys.

The LEGO brick is our most important product. We are proud to have been named “Toy of the Century” twice. Our products have undergone extensive development over the years – but the foundation remains the traditional LEGO brick.

The brick in its present form was launched in 1958. The interlocking principle with its tubes makes it unique and offers unlimited building possibilities. It&rsquos just a matter of getting the imagination going – and letting a wealth of creative ideas emerge through play.


Timeline of King Henry VI

Timeline of Key Dates: Timeline of King Henry VI Key events

King Henry VI reigned as King of England from August 31,1422 - March 4, 1461 and October 31,1470 - April 14, 1471

1421: Henry was born on December 6, 1421 at Windsor Castle he was known as Henry of Windsor. Henry was the son of King Henry V (1387-1422) and Catherine of Valois (1401-1437)

1422: August 31, 1422: Henry VI succeeded to the throne at the age of just nine months

1429: 29 April 1429 the Siege of Orleans: The English had laid siege to Orleans in France. Joan of Arc gains victory over the English

1429: The coronation of Henry VI was on November 6, 1429

1430: 23 May 1430: Joan of Arc was captured by the English

1431: 9 January 1431: The trial of Joan of Arc started at Rouen

1431: 30 May 1431: The execution of Joan of Arc who was burnt at the stake

1431: December 16, 1431: Henry was proclaimed King of France at Notre Dame in Paris on December 16, 1431

1437: His mother, Catherine of Valois, died and Henry took power of England

1445: April 23, 1445: King Henry VI married Margaret of Anjou (1429-1482) at Titchfield in Hampshire. They had one son, Edward, Prince of Wales (1453-1471)

1453: King Henry VI had a mental breakdown

1453: October 13, 1453: Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales (1453-1471) was born

1450: The Duchy of Aquitaine and Normandy were lost, leaving Calais as England's only remaining territory in France

1450: Jack Cade led a rebellion in Kent. 20,000 peasants joined the revolt protesting against the King the losses in France and taxation

1454: Edward of Westminster was invested as Prince of Wales

1454: Richard, Duke of York was named regent as Protector of the Realm and started pressing his claim to the throne

1455: King Henry VI made a temporary recovery form his illness and his strong wife drove Richard, Duke of York from court - the Lancastrians with Margaret of Anjou had once gained power and the Yorkists were in decline

1455: May 22, 1455: The First Battle of St Albans was the start of Civil war in England called the Wars of the Roses

1460: Battle of Northampton, on July 10, 1460: The Yorkist army under Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick ( the Kingmaker ) captured King Henry

1460: King Henry VI again suffered a bout of madness and Richard Duke of York was again appointed Regent of England

1460: October 1460 the Act of Accord: Richard, Duke of York was named as successor to the throne, disinheriting Henry's six year old son Prince Edward

1460: The Battle of Wakefield: Richard took a strong position at Sandal castle and far out numbered the Lancastrian army. Unbelievably Richard left Sandal castle and was defeated by the Lancastrian army. Richard was killed in the battle. His son, Edward of York, now pressed his claim to the throne of England

1461: March 4: Edward of York was declared King Edward IV in London

1470: A rebellion led by Warwick and Clarence failed and they were forced to flee to France where they made an alliance with Margaret of Anjou

1470: The French support an English invasion led by Margaret, Warwick and Clarence.

1470: King Edward IV was forced to flee when Warwick's brother, John Neville changed to the Lancastrian side

1470: 3 October 1470, Readeption of Henry VI: Henry VI was briefly restored to the throne of England

1470: December 1470: Prince Edward was married to Anne Neville, Warwick's younger daughter

1471: March: King Edward IV lands with an invasion force in England

1471: Battle of Barnet -14 April: King Edward IV wins the battle and Warwick is killed.

1471: King Henry VI is imprisoned in the Tower of London

1471: May 22, 1471: The death of King Henry VI at the Tower of London. The cause of his death is unknown, but he is believed to have been murdered.

King Edward IV carries on his role as King of England

Timeline of King Henry VI
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Timeline of King Henry VI

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A Brief History of Leo Wahl

The road which lead to the creation of Wahl Clipper Corporation began when Sterling High School student, Leo J. Wahl experimented with a vibrating electromagnetic motor in 1911. Later as an engineering student at the University of Illinois, Leo Wahl designed a vibrating medical massager for his uncle J. Frank Wahl, who began manufacturing the massagers in a small plant in Sterling, Illinois. Leo spent his spare time selling these massagers to barbershops, where he recognized the need to improve barber tools. When his uncle was called into service during the Mexican Revolution, Leo Wahl took over the manufacturing business and began experimenting on a new electric hair clipper.

On October 14 1919, Leo J. Wahl applied for patents on his newly developed electromagnetic hair clipper, and manufacturing began at the Wahl Manufacturing Company. It was the first practical clipper with the drive motor in the hand, rather than connected to a separate motor through a flexible shaft. By the end of 1920, his factory had manufactured and sold thousands of of clippers to barbers all over the United States. In these early years, Mr. Wahl concentrated on working directly with barbers to improve the efficiency and convenience of the clipper.

On February 2 1921, Leo Wahl, having received a patent on his new clipper, purchased 100% of the Wahl Manufacturing Company stock and renamed and incorporated the business as Wahl Clipper Corporation. Growth was rapid, financed from manufacturing earnings and patent royalties.


Leon Trotsky (1879 - 1940)

Leon Trotsky, 1920 © Trotsky was a key figure in the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia, second only to Vladimir Lenin in the early stages of Soviet communist rule. But he lost out to Joseph Stalin in the power struggle that followed Lenin's death, and was assassinated while in exile.

Trotsky was born Lev Davidovich Bronstein on 7 November 1879 in Yanovka, Ukraine, then part of Russia. His father was a prosperous Jewish farmer. Trotsky became involved in underground activities as a teenager. He was soon arrested, jailed and exiled to Siberia where he joined the Social Democratic Party. Eventually, he escaped Siberia and spent the majority of the next 15 years abroad, including a spell in London.

In 1903, the Social Democrats split. While Lenin assumed leadership of the 'Bolshevik' (majority) faction, Trotsky became a member of the 'Menshevik' (minority) faction and developed his theory of 'permanent revolution'. After the outbreak of revolution in Petrograd in February 1917, he made his way back to Russia. Despite previous disagreements with Lenin, Trotsky joined the Bolsheviks and played a decisive role in the communist take-over of power in the same year. His first post in the new government was as foreign commissar, where he found himself negotiating peace terms with Germany. He was then made war commissar and in this capacity, built up the Red Army which prevailed against the White Russian forces in the civil war. Thus Trotsky played a crucial role in keeping the Bolshevik regime alive. He saw himself as Lenin's heir-apparent, but his intellectual arrogance made him few friends, and his Jewish heritage may also have worked against him. When Lenin fell ill and died, Trotsky was easily outmanoeuvred by Stalin. In 1927, he was thrown out of the party. Internal and then foreign exile followed, but Trotsky continued to write and to criticise Stalin.

Trotsky settled in Mexico in 1936. On 20 August 1940, an assassin called Ramon Mercader, acting on Stalin's orders, stabbed Trotsky with an ice pick, fatally wounding him. He died the next day.


Vatican City

The Vatican’s history as the seat of the Catholic Church began with the construction of a basilica over St. Peter’s grave in Rome in the 4th century A.D. The area developed into a popular pilgrimage site and commercial district, although it was abandoned following the move of the papal court to France in 1309. After the Church returned in 1377, famous landmarks such the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel and the new St. Peter’s Basilica were erected within the city limits. Vatican City was established in its current form as a sovereign nation with the signing of the Lateran Pacts in 1929.

The area off the west bank of the Tiber River that comprises the Vatican was once a marshy region known as Ager Vaticanus. During the early years of the Roman Empire, it became an administrative region populated by expensive villas, as well as a circus built in the gardens of Emperor Caligula’s mother. After much of Rome was leveled in a fire in A.D. 64, Emperor Nero executed St. Peter and other Christian scapegoats at the base of Vatican Hill, where they were buried in a necropolis.

Having embraced Christianity with the Edict of Milan in 313, Emperor Constantine I began constructing a basilica over St. Peter’s tomb in 324. St. Peter’s Basilica became a spiritual center for Christian pilgrims, leading to the development of housing for clergymen and the formation of a marketplace that became the thriving commercial district of Borgo.

Following an attack by Saracen pirates that damaged St. Peter’s in 846, Pope Leo IV ordered the construction of a wall to protect the holy basilica and its associated precincts. Completed in 852, the 39-foot-tall wall enclosed what was inaugurated Leonine City, an area covering the current Vatican territory and the Borgo district. The walls were continually expanded and modified until the reign of Pope Urban VIII in the 1640s.

Although the pontiff traditionally lived at the nearby Lateran Palace, Pope Symmachus built a residence adjacent to St. Peter’s in the early 6th century. It was expanded hundreds of years later by both Eugene III and Innocent III, and in 1277 a half-mile-long covered passageway was assembled to link the structure to Castel Sant𠆚ngelo. However, the buildings were all abandoned with the shift of the papal court to Avignon, France, in 1309, and over the next half-century the city fell into disrepair.

Following the return of the Catholic Church in 1377, the clergy sought to restore the walled city’s luster.
Nicholas V circa 1450 commenced construction of the Apostolic Palace, eventually the permanent home of his successors, and his collection of books became the foundation of the Vatican Library. In the 1470s, Sixtus IV began work on the famed Sistine Chapel, featuring frescoes created by such leading Renaissance artists as Botticelli and Perugino.

Significant changes to the city took place after Julius II became pope in 1503. Julius commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling in 1508, and tapped architect Donato Bramante design the Belvedere Courtyard. The pontiff also elected to tear down the 1,200-year-old St. Peter’s Basilica and have Bramante build a new one in its place.

The death of Julius in 1513 and Bramante the following year led to a decades-long dispute over how to continue the project, until Michelangelo ended the deadlock in 1547 with his choice to follow Bramante’s original design. Giacomo della Porta completed St. Peter’s celebrated dome in 1590, and work on the grand structure finally finished in 1626. Measuring 452 feet tall and encompassing 5.7 acres, the new St. Peter’s stood as the world’s biggest church until the completion of the Ivory Coast’s Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro in 1989.

The Vatican Museums originated from the sculpture collection of Julius II, its earliest gallery opened to the public by Pope Clement XIV in 1773 and expanded by Pope Pius VI. Subsequent popes continued to bolster the renowned collections over the years, with the Gregorian Egyptian Museum, the Ethnological Museum and the Collection of Modern and Contemporary Religious Art among the additions.

Popes traditionally held power over regional territories known as the Papal States until 1870, when the unified Italian government claimed virtually all of the land outside of the city walls. A standoff between the church and secular government ensued for the next 60 years, until an agreement reached with the Lateran Pacts in February 1929. Signed by Benito Mussolini on behalf of King Victor Emmanuel III, the pacts established Vatican City as a sovereign entity distinct from the Holy See, and granted the church $92 million as compensation for the loss of the Papal States.

The Vatican remains the home of the pope and the Roman Curia, and the spiritual center for some 1.2 billion followers of the Catholic Church. The world’s smallest independent nation-state, it covers 109 acres within a 2-mile border, and possesses another 160 acres of holdings in remote locations. Along with the centuries-old buildings and gardens, the Vatican maintains its own banking and telephone systems, post office, pharmacy, newspaper, and radio and television stations. Its 600 citizens include the members of the Swiss Guard, a security detail charged with protecting the pope since 1506.


Social studies

A timeline of select events of the Middle Ages is shown. The timeline ranges from the year 500 to the year 1500. The timeline shows that in 597, Pope Gregory I sent missionaries to Britain. It shows that in 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor. It shows that in 966, the first Polish king converted to Christianity. It shows that circa 1200, monasteries began to take an active role in society. It shows that Thomas Aquinas published his work on natural law in 1265.

Which of the following best describes the theme of the timeline?

A.
the fall of the Roman Empire

B.
the Reformation in Europe

D.
the spread of the Catholic faith

No. We've checked two of your guesses. You're on your own now. Please do not post this question again.

you guys didn't answer the question though what one is it?

yeah, what one is it. There are 3 different answers.

yall if u read the time line its c

Connections Academy: Feudal Europe Unit Test

1. Look at the timeline of a span of European history. Which of the following best describes the theme of the timeline

D. the spread of the Catholic faith

2. Which was the Catholic Church’s most powerful tool in maintaining its authority in medieval Europe?

C. its control over the sacraments

3. Why did the authors of the Magna Carta include this text?

B. They wanted to limit the power of the king to fine people unjustly.

4. Which of the following did a vassal receive in exchange for his loyalty?

B. the right to an estate
5. Which of the following was an effect of the Crusades?

C. Muslim advances in science and medicine spread to Europe.

5. How did an agricultural surplus relate to expanded trade during the High Middle Ages?

A. Trade increased because surplus crops could be traded.

6. Which two groups serve lords?

7. Which of the following are accurate statements about how Europe changed as a result of Otto the Great's rule? Select the three correct answers.

B. An empire made up of Germany, parts of Italy, and much of central and Eastern Europe was created.
D. A line of Ottonian kings ruled after Otto's death.

E. The empire came to be known as the Holy Roman Empire.

8. How did the role of the church in education change over time?

C. Schools began to provide education beyond religious instruction.

9. Which of Charlemagne’s accomplishments might this writer have had in mind in crediting Charlemagne with the creation of “modern Europe”? Select the two correct answers.

C. He helped spread Christianity.

D. He encouraged the creation of schools.

10. Why did monks and nuns promise to live their entire lives within their religious communities?

B. They made a vow to devote their entire lives to God.

13. Which of the following is the main reason towns grew during the High Middle Ages?

C. People needed a place to sell and buy goods.

15. Where in Europe did a Muslim dynasty establish a state in the 700s?
A. Spain

16. Which advances in weaponry developed during the Hundred Years' War made war more deadly? Select the three correct answers.

A. the longbow
B. the cannon
C. the gun

17. Which invaders came from south of the European continent?
D. Muslims

18. Which of the following statements accurately describes the movement of ideas and goods during the Middle Ages?

A. The rivers of Europe allowed people to move easily and spread new ideas.

21. Drag and drop the correct descriptions to identify the effects of agricultural improvements on Europe.

Population Increased
Trade and Industry grew
More people moved to towns

This is 100% accurate. I thought you could all use less stress so close to the end of the year. This was a beast of a test so I wanted to spread a little cheer. Happy summer everyone.

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Watch the video: Λέων διάσωση 26-6-2013 (January 2022).