Information

Teaser II SP-933 - History


Teaser II

(SP-933: 1. 60'0"; b. 12'0"; dr. 3' (aft.); B. 11.2 k.;
cpl. 6; a. 2 1-pdrs.)

The second Teaser—a wooden-hulled cabin launch built in 1916 at Norfolk, Va., by W. F. Dunn—was acquired by the Navy in November 1917 from George Roper & Brother and was commissioned on 29 November 1917. For the final year of World War I, she operated in the 5th Naval District on section patrol in the vicinity of Hampton Roads. On 27 December 1918, a month and one-half after the signing of the armistice agreement, Teaser caught fire and sank. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 16 February 1919.


The Curse of Oak Island

Rick, Marty and the Oak Island team are back for the biggest season yet – bringing with them more determination, resources and technology than ever in their quest to solve the 224-year old treasure mystery. After seismic testing conducted at the end of last season revealed a possible sunken ship buried in the triangle-shaped swamp, the team will use sonic core drilling, strategic dives and finally a historic big dig to find out what could be buried below. Now fully partnered with fellow land owner, Tom Nolan, the son of the late, Fred Nolan, Rick, Marty and Craig Tester will have unprecedented access to areas of the island that they hope will yield answers… and treasure.

Even more extensive metal detecting will be used to search on the surface of the island while exhaustive archaeological digs will be conducted near the historic homestead foundations of Daniel McGinnis and Samuel Ball.

The cofferdam at Smith’s Cove will be expanded to allow the team to conduct an even more extensive investigation than last year, which uncovered numerous manmade structures dating more than two decades prior to the discovery of the Money Pit in 1795. The Oak Island team will not only find more of the ancient slipway, but be searching for the box drains and artifacts — like the 14th century lead cross found two years ago. They will also be drilling and digging above the beach in search of the so-called convergence point where the box drains are believed to merge into a single flood tunnel leading back to the original Money Pit.

In the Money Pit area, itself, they will conduct deep ground penetrating radar to look for the flood tunnel and using cutting edge survey tech and heavy digging machines, they will excavate early 19th century searcher shafts to help triangulate their way back to the location of the original Money Pit. This will lead to the biggest and most extensive digs that Rick, Marty, Craig Tester and the team have ever conducted in an effort to once and for all locate the fabled “Chappell Vault.”

After 224 years, the Oak Island mystery, now has the greatest chance ever to finally being solved.


Watch the teaser trailer to Netflix’s upcoming animated WWII series ‘The Liberator’

Netflix dropped a teaser trailer last week to its upcoming animated World War II series “The Liberator” — and it looks incredible.

Scheduled for a Nov. 11 release, in accordance with Veterans Day, the limited four-part series acts as a direct adaptation of author Alex Kershaw’s non-fiction book “The Liberator: One World War II Soldier’s 500-Day Odyssey from the Beaches of Sicily to the Gates of Dachau.”

Tailored for the screen by writer Jeb Stuart (“Die Hard,” “The Fugitive”), Kershaw’s story “traces the remarkable battlefield journey of maverick U.S. Army officer Felix Sparks through the Allied liberation of Europe — from the first landing in Italy to the final death throes of the Third Reich,” its synopsis reads.

“Over five hundred bloody days, Sparks and his infantry unit battled from the beaches of Sicily through the mountains of Italy and France, ultimately enduring bitter and desperate winter combat against the die-hard SS on the Fatherland’s borders. Having miraculously survived the long, bloody march across Europe, Sparks was selected to lead a final charge to Bavaria, where he and his men experienced some of the most intense street fighting suffered by Americans in World War II.”

Already having experienced unimaginable horrors, Sparks, a member of the racially diverse, Oklahoma-based 45th “Thunderbird” Infantry Division, comes face to face with the inhumane nightmare that is Dachau concentration camp.

There, Sparks witnesses “scenes that robbed the mind of reason — and put his humanity to the ultimate test,” according to the synopsis.

Netflix’s “The Liberator” is the first series to use an animated technology known as Trioscope, according to Deadline, a cost-effective blend of live-action and CGI animation that, if the trailer is any indication, will yield stunning results.


Contents

Starting in the late 1980s, Jackson and the tabloid press had a difficult relationship. In 1986, tabloids claimed that Jackson slept in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber and had offered to buy the bones of Joseph Merrick (the "Elephant Man"), both of which Jackson denied. [2] [3] These stories inspired the derogatory nickname "Wacko Jacko", which Jackson despised. He stopped leaking untruths to the press, [4] and the media began creating their own stories. [4] In 1989, Jackson released "Leave Me Alone", a song about the victimization he felt by the press. [5]

In 1993, the relationship between Jackson and the press collapsed when he was accused of child sexual abuse. Although he was not charged, Jackson was subject to intense media scrutiny while the criminal investigation took place. Complaints [ whose? ] about the coverage and media included misleading and sensational headlines [6] paying for stories of Jackson's alleged criminal activity [7] and confidential material from the police investigation [8] using unflattering pictures of Jackson [9] and using headlines that strongly implied Jackson's guilt. [9] In 1994, Jackson said of the media coverage: "I am particularly upset by the handling of the matter by the incredible, terrible mass media. At every opportunity, the media has dissected and manipulated these allegations to reach their own conclusions." [10]

Jackson began taking painkillers, Valium, Xanax and Ativan to deal with the stress of the allegations. [11] A few months after the allegations became news, Jackson stopped eating. [12] Soon after, Jackson's health deteriorated to the extent that he canceled the remainder of his tour and went into rehabilitation. [13] [14] Jackson booked the whole fourth floor of a clinic and was put on Valium IV to wean him from painkillers. [13] [14] The media showed Jackson little sympathy. In 1993, the Daily Mirror held a "Spot the Jacko" contest, offering readers a trip to Disney World if they could correctly predict where Jackson would appear next. [13] The same year, a Daily Express headline read "Drug Treatment Star Faces Life on the Run", while a News of the World headline accused Jackson of being a fugitive these tabloids also falsely alleged that Jackson had traveled to Europe to have cosmetic surgery that would make him unrecognizable on his return. [13] In early November 1993, talk show host Geraldo Rivera set up a mock trial with a jury of audience members, though Jackson had not been charged with a crime. [15]

HIStory was Jackson's first studio album since his 1991 album Dangerous nearly four years prior, and his first new material to be released since being accused of child sexual abuse in 1993. [16] The album is a two-disc album: Disc one (HIStory Begins) contains previously released material from Jackson's four previous post-Motown studio albums, Off the Wall (1979), Thriller (1982), Bad (1987) and Dangerous (1991), and the second disc (HIStory Continues) comprises new material recorded from September 1994 to March 1995. [17] Jackson co-wrote and co-produced a majority of the new songs other writers include Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, Dallas Austin, the Notorious B.I.G., Bruce Swedien, R. Kelly and René Moore, and other producers include David Foster and Bill Bottrell. [17]

Similarly to Jackson's previous studio albums Thriller and Bad, HIStory contains lyrics that deal with paranoia. The majority of the new songs were written by Jackson. Several of the album's 15 new songs pertain to the child sexual abuse allegations made against him in 1993 [18] and Jackson's perceived mistreatment by the media, mainly the tabloids. [19] Because of this, the album has been described as being Jackson's most "personal". [20] Two of the album's new tracks are covers. [18] The genres of the songs on the album span R&B, pop, hip hop, elements of hard rock ("D.S.") and funk rock ("Scream"), and ballads. [18] [20] [21] [22] The lyrics pertain to isolation, greed, environmental concerns, injustice. "Scream" is a duet with Jackson's sister Janet with "spitting" [18] lyrics about injustice. [20]

The lyrics for the R&B ballad "You Are Not Alone", written by R. Kelly, pertain to isolation. [20] Two Belgian songwriters, brothers Eddy and Danny Van Passel, claimed to have written the melody in 1993. In September 2007, a Belgian judge ruled the song had been plagiarized from the Van Passel brothers, and it was banned from radio play in Belgium. [23] [24] "D.S.", a hard rock song, has lyrics about a "cold man" named "Dom S. Sheldon". Critics interpreted it as an attack on Thomas Sneddon, who had led the prosecution in Jackson's trial. [18] [21] [25] [26]

"Money" was interpreted as being directed at Evan Chandler, the father of the boy who accused Jackson of child sexual abuse. [18] The lyrics of "Childhood" pertain to Jackson's childhood. [27] Similar to "Scream", the lyrics to "They Don't Care About Us" pertain to injustice, as well as racism. In "This Time Around", Jackson asserts himself as having been "falsely accused". [18] The song includes a guest rap by the Notorious B.I.G. (aka Biggie Smalls). [28] "Earth Song" was described as a "slow blues-operatic", [20] and its lyrics pertain to environmental concerns. On HIStory, Jackson covered Charlie Chaplin's "Smile" and the Beatles' "Come Together". [20]

"2 Bad" was influenced by hip-hop, with a sample of Run–D.M.C.'s King of Rock and another guest rap verse by Shaquille O'Neal. The similarity in lyrics and name have led to some seeing it as a spiritual successor to Jackson's 1987 track, "Bad". [29] "Stranger in Moscow" is a pop ballad that is interspersed with sounds of rain, [18] in which Jackson references a "swift and sudden fall from grace". [20] "Tabloid Junkie" is a hard funk song [30] with lyrics instructing listeners to not believe everything they read in the media and tabloids. [20] [21] The album's title track, "HIStory" contained multiple samples, including Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech. [31] "HIStory" was not released as a single from HIStory, but its remix was from Blood on the Dance Floor: HIStory in the Mix in 1997.

As an introduction for "Little Susie", Jackson used his own variation of Pie Jesu from Maurice Duruflé's Requiem. Some [ who? ] speculate, the inspiration behind the song likely came from an artist called Gottfried Helnwein. An urban legend states that Little Susie was written about a girl called Susie Condry who was murdered in 1972. However no evidence of this event can be found. Jackson admired Helnweint's work and had purchased some of his paintings. One of them, "Beautiful Victim", inspired the song. The song is considered quite provocative as he paints about the human condition depicting wounded children, among others. Helnwein later painted a portrait of Michael. [32] There appears to be a similarity between the "Beautiful Victim" painting and the artwork included for the song in HIStory. The song was written and recorded during Off the Wall. [32]

On June 15, 1995, The New York Times claimed that "They Don't Care About Us" contained antisemitic slurs in the lines "Jew me, sue me, everybody do me / Kick me, kike me, don't you black or white me". [33] In a statement, Jackson responded:

The idea that these lyrics could be deemed objectionable is extremely hurtful to me, and misleading. The song, in fact, is about the pain of prejudice and hate and is a way to draw attention to social and political problems. I am the voice of the accused and the attacked. I am the voice of everyone. I am the skinhead, I am the Jew, I am the black man, I am the white man. I am not the one who was attacking. It is about the injustices to young people and how the system can wrongfully accuse them. I am angry and outraged that I could be so misinterpreted. [33]

Jackson's manager and record label said the lyrics opposed prejudice and had been taken out of context. [33] The following day, David A. Lehrer and Rabbi Marvin Hier, leaders of two Jewish organizations, stated that Jackson's attempt to make a song critical of discrimination had backfired. They felt the lyrics might be ambiguous and were unsuitable for young audiences because they might not understand the song's context. They acknowledged that Jackson meant well and suggested that he write an explanation in the album booklet. [34] In his review of HIStory, Jon Pareles of The New York Times wrote that the song "gives the lie to his entire catalogue of brotherhood anthems with a burst of anti-Semitism". [35]

On June 17, Jackson promised that future copies of the album would include an apology, and concluded: "I just want you all to know how strongly I am committed to tolerance, peace and love, and I apologize to anyone who might have been hurt." [36] On June 23, Jackson announced that "Jew me" and "kike me" would be replaced with "do me" and "strike me" on future copies of the album. [37] He reiterated his acceptance that the song was offensive to some. [37] [38] Spike Lee, who would direct the music videos for "They Don't Care About Us", said that he felt there was a double standard in the music industry, and that the word "nigger" in music does not cause controversy. [39] Rapper Notorious B.I.G. used the word "nigga" on another song on the album, "This Time Around", but it did not attract media attention. [39]

HIStory ' s music videos displayed different themes and elements, while some of them encouraged awareness of poverty and had a positive effect on their shooting locations. The promo for "They Don't Care About Us" was directed by Spike Lee Jackson said that Lee chose to direct the video because the song "has an edge, and Spike Lee had approached me. It's a public awareness song and that's what he is all about. It's a protest kind of song. and I think he was perfect for it." [40] Jackson also collaborated with 200 members of the cultural group Olodum, who played music in the video. [41] The resulting media interest exposed Olodum to 140 countries, bringing them worldwide fame and increasing their status in Brazil. [42] Lúcia Nagib, of The New Brazilian Cinema, said of the music video:

When Michael Jackson decided to shoot his new music video in a favela of Rio de Janeiro. he used the favela people as extras in a visual super-spectacle. All the while there is a vaguely political appeal in there. The interesting aspect of Michael Jackson's strategy is the efficiency with which it gives visibility to poverty and social problems in countries like Brazil without resorting to traditional political discourse. The problematic aspect is that it does not entail a real intervention in that poverty. [43]

In 2009, Billboard described the area as "now a model for social development" and stated that Jackson's influence was partially responsible for this improvement. [44] For the first time in Jackson's career, he made a second music video for a single. [45] This second version was filmed in a prison with cell mates the video shows Jackson handcuffed and contains real footage of police attacking African Americans, the Ku Klux Klan, genocide, execution, and other human rights abuses. [45] Jackson's music video for "Earth Song" received praise for its environmental recognition. In 1995, the video received a Genesis Award for Doris Day Music Award, given each year for animal sensitivity. [46] In 2008, a writer for the Nigeria Exchange said that "'Earth Song' drew the world's attention to the degradation and bastardization of the earth as a fall out of various human activities". [47]

Two other music videos from HIStory have been influential. Jackson's "Stranger In Moscow" music video influenced the advertising campaign for International Cricket Council Champions Trophy 2004, which featured "a series of smart outdoor ads and a classy TV spot". [48] The television commercial was inspired by "Stranger In Moscow"s video where "the maiden in black splash about in the rain, with kids playing cricket for company". [48] "Scream" was a creative influence on other music videos such as "No Scrubs" (1999) by TLC. [49] This influence was also present on the 2008 release of "Shawty Get Loose" by Lil Mama and Chris Brown. [50] Reacting to the comparisons made between the videos, Mama explained, "I feel honored, because that was one of the initial goals, and I feel that it was executed well", she added that the emulation was intentional and that Brown was the only logical choice to step into Michael Jackson's role. [50]

Sony Music spent $30 million to promote the album. [51] The music press were anticipating how well it would sell. One analyst for SoundScan expressed the opinion that the press was out of touch with the public when it came to Jackson the public liked him, while the press did not. [52] He believed that "naysayers" in the media would be left surprised with the commercial reception. [52]

Also, during this period of time, Jackson did a series of personal appearances, becoming the first time that he faced the public eye following the allegations. On June 14, 1995, Jackson did the interview TV special "Primetime Live" along with his then wife Lisa Marie Presley and the interviewer Diane Sawyer. The special was watched by an audience 60 million in the United States and 500 millions worldwide. However, it received mixed reviews by critics. [53] [54]

"Smile", "This Time Around" and "D.S." were released as promotional singles in 1995 and December 1997. Due to lack of radio airplay, "Smile" and "D.S." did not chart on any music charts worldwide. "This Time Around", was released as a radio-only single in the United States in December 1995. The song peaked at number 23 on the Billboard Hot R&B Singles chart and at number 18 on the Billboard Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart solely off radio airplay. [55]

To promote the album, Jackson embarked on the HIStory World Tour, which grossed $165 million (equivalent to $268 million in 2019). [56] It was Jackson's third and final concert tour as a solo artist. The tour, beginning in Prague, Czech Republic on September 7, 1996, attracted more than 4.5 million fans from 58 cities in 35 countries around the world. The average concert attendance was 54,878 and the tour lasted 82 tour dates. Jackson performed no concerts in the United States, besides two concerts in January 1997 in Hawaii at the Aloha Stadium, to a crowd of 35,000 each he was the first artist to sell out the stadium. [57] [58] VIP seats cost, on average, $200 per person. [58] Each concert lasted an estimated two hours and ten minutes. [58] The tour concluded in Durban, South Africa on October 15, 1997. [59]

The album cover depicts a 10-foot sculpture of Jackson in a "warrior-like" pose, created in 1994 by Diana Walczak. [60] To promote the tour, Epic placed ten 30-foot replicas of the statue in locations around the world, [61] including the River Thames in London, Alexanderplatz in Berlin, Eindhoven in the Netherlands, and the pedestal of the destroyed Stalin Monument in Prague. [62] The statues were built over three months by a team of 30, made from steel and fiberglass, and weighed around 20,000 pounds each. [61] Another statue, built from wood and plaster, was placed at the Los Angeles Tower Records store. [63] In 2016, the original statue was installed at the Mandalay Bay casino in Las Vegas. [60]

Six singles were released from HIStory. "Scream"/"Childhood" was the first single released in May 1995. "Scream" was sung and performed by Jackson and his sister Janet Jackson. The single had the best ever debut at number five - where it peaked, on the Billboard Hot 100. [64] The song received a Grammy nomination for "Best Pop Collaboration With Vocals". [64] [65] The music video for "Scream" is one of Jackson's most critically acclaimed songs and music videos, receiving numerous awards. With a US$9 million music video production budget, "Scream" is the most expensive music video ever made as of 2015. [66]

"You Are Not Alone" was the second single released from HIStory. Having debuted at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 on September 2, 1995, [67] it became the first song to debut at number one on the chart, succeeding the record previously held from Jackson's "Scream" single. [64] "You Are Not Alone" was released in August 1995, and it topped the charts in various international markets, including the United Kingdom, [28] France, and Spain. [68] The song was seen as a major artistic and commercial success. [65]

"Earth Song" was the third single released in November 1995. "Earth Song" did not chart on Billboard 100. Internationally, the song topped four countries' charts, as well as charting within the top-ten in nine other nations. [69] The song topped the UK Singles Chart for six weeks over Christmas in 1995 and sold one million copies there, making it his most successful United Kingdom single, surpassing the success of his single "Billie Jean". [65]

"This Time Around" was released as the album's fourth single on December 26, 1995, with a guest rap by the Notorious B.I.G.. It was the album's first promotional single, and was released in the United States only. Tag lines for a December 1995 HBO special were heavily marketed on the copies of this single, but the special was canceled after Jackson had fallen ill.

"They Don't Care About Us" was the fifth single. "They Don't Care About Us" peaked at number thirty on the Billboard 100, and it charted within the top-ten of Billboard ' s Hot Dance Music and Hot R&B Singles Charts. [55] The song charted better in other countries, compared to the United States, managing to chart within the top-ten in fourteen countries. "They Don't Care About Us" topped the German Singles chart for three weeks, [70] while peaking at number two in Spain, number three in Austria, Sweden, and Switzerland, as well as charting at number four in France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. [71]

"Stranger in Moscow" was released as the sixth and final single in November 1996. The song was well received by critics. In the United States, the song peaked at number ninety one on the Billboard Hot 100. [72] Outside of the United States, the song was a success, topping in Spain and Italy, while peaking within the top-ten in the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and New Zealand, among others. [73] [74]

"Smile" was originally intended to be the album's seventh and final single, and was to be released in CD and 12" format on January 20, 1998. However, the release was canceled due to unknown reasons, and most of the copies were subsequently destroyed. Only a few copies were sent out for airplay.

HIStory debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums charts selling over 391,000 copies in its first week. [75] [76] In its second week, the album stayed at the top with a decline of 33% with 263,000 copies. [77] In it third week, it slipped to number 2 with a 46% decline with 142,000 copies. [78] However, the album spent just six weeks at the top 10, selling over one million of copies in total. [79] By the end of 1995, the album sold more than 1.9 million units, according to SoundScan, the set fell short of many observer's expectations. [80]

However, the album was a massive success in other countries. The album was certified eight times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) on August 23, 2018 in the United States. Because HIStory is double disc album, its CDs are therefore counted separately for certification purposes, meaning the album achieved platinum status in the United States after 500,000 copies were shipped, not one million.

In Europe, before it was released, three million copies were shipped, breaking records as the biggest shipped album ever. The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry certified HIStory six times platinum, denoting six million shipments within the continent, including 1.5 million in Germany and 1.2 million shipments in the United Kingdom. [81] [82]

In the United Kingdom the album debuted at number one and sold 100,000 copies in just two days. It was certified 4x Platinum by the BPI. [83] in Australia the advance order of 130,000 copies was the largest initial shipment in Sony Australia's history and in Spain HIStory was the 20th Best Selling Album of 1995 and the 12th Best Selling Album by a Foreign Artist. [84]

In Chile, the album topped the charts and it broke all sales records in Chile when the album sold 25,000 units within 72 hours of its release there on June 16. [85]

HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I has sold over 20 million copies worldwide, [86] and is the best selling multiple-disc release, making it one of the best-selling albums of all time [87] The greatest hits disc was reissued as a single disc on November 13, 2001, under the title Greatest Hits: HIStory, Volume I and had sold four million copies worldwide by 2010. [88] The second disc was released separately in some European countries in 2011.

HIStory received generally positive reviews. Jon Pareles of The New York Times wrote that "It has been a long time since Michael Jackson was simply a performer. He's the main asset of his own corporation, which is a profitable subsidiary of Sony." [89] Some reviewers commented on the unusual format of a new studio album being accompanied by a "greatest hits" collection, with Q magazine saying "from the new songs' point of view, it's like taking your dad with you into a fight." [90] Fred Shuster of the Daily News of Los Angeles described "This Time Around", "Money" and "D.S." as "superb slices of organic funk that will fuel many of the summer's busiest dance floors". [91]

Professional ratings
Review scores
SourceRating
AllMusic [92]
Christgau's Consumer Guide [93]
Entertainment WeeklyB [21]
Q [90]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide [94]
Rolling Stone [20]

James Hunter of Rolling Stone gave HIStory four-out-of-five stars and found that it "unfolds in Jackson's outraged response to everything he has encountered in the last year or so." Hunter felt it was an "odd, charmless second chapter" compared to Jackson's earlier hits. [20] However, he described "This Time Around" as a "dynamite jam" that was "ripe for remixes", and "Scream" and "Tabloid Junkie" as "adventurous". He said "Earth Song" had "noble sentiments" and sounded "primarily like a showpiece". [20] Jim Farber of the New York Daily News gave the album a mixed review and commented that he would give the first disc on its own. [19] Jon Pareles of The New York Times believed that Jackson "muttered" lyrics such as "They thought they really had control of me". [89] Chris Willman of the Los Angeles Times said of "This Time Around", "a tough, rhythm-guitar-driven track co-written and co-produced by hit-maker Dallas Austin that sports one of the album's better grooves". [95]

Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic gave HIStory three-out-of-five stars, but commented that it was a "monumental achievement" of Jackson's ego. [92] Erlewine remarked that on the HIStory Begins CD, it contains "some of the greatest music in pop history" but that it leaves some hits out, citing "Say Say Say" and "Dirty Diana" — commenting that "yet it's filled with enough prime material to be thoroughly intoxicating". [92] Erlewine noted that HIStory Continues is "easily the most personal album Jackson has recorded" and that its songs' lyrics referencing the molestation accusations create a "thick atmosphere of paranoia". [92] He cited "You Are Not Alone" and "Scream" as being "well-crafted pop that ranks with his best material", but concludes that "nevertheless, HIStory Continues stands as his weakest album since the mid-'70s." [92] David Browne of Entertainment Weekly, gave "HIStory Begins" an "A-" grade but the album's new material a "C-", which "winds up a B" for the entire album. [21] Browne commented that the music "rarely seems to transport him (and thereby us) to a higher plane." [21]

Controversy with the album came with Jackson having to rerecord some lyrics in "They Don't Care About Us" after he was accused of antisemitism, and contributor R. Kelly was accused of having plagiarized one of the album's songs, "You Are Not Alone", leading to its banning on Belgian radio.

HIStory was nominated for six Grammy Awards at the 1996 and 1997 ceremonies respectively, winning one award. "You Are Not Alone" was nominated for Best Pop Vocal Performance – Male and for Song of the Year. "Scream" was nominated for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals and "Scream" won Best Music Video - Short Form and "Earth Song" was nominated for the same award the following year. The album itself was nominated for Album of the Year. At the 1995 MTV Video Music Awards, "Scream" received ten nominations, winning in three categories. [96] In 1998, the album was ranked at number 96 in BBC's Music of the Millennium, a list of 100 albums chosen by Channel 4 viewers, The Guardian readers and HMV customers as the best of the millennium. [97]

Adapted from the album's liner notes and AllMusic. [17] [98]

  • Gary Adante – keyboards, synthesizer
  • Yannick Allain – staff
  • Trini Alvarez Jr. – assistant engineer
  • Maxi Anderson – choir conductor
  • Rob Arbitter – keyboards, synthesizer
  • Ryan Arnold – assistant engineer
  • Gloria Augustus – background vocals
  • Dallas Austin – arranger, keyboards, producer, synthesizer
  • John Bahler – vocal arrangement, background vocals
  • John Bahler Singers – background vocals
  • Tom Bahler – synclavier
  • Bettye Bailey – staff – keyboards, rhythm arrangements, synthesizer, synthesizer arrangements
  • Brian Banks – keyboards, synthesizer, synthesizer programming
  • John Barnes – keyboards, piano, synthesizer, vocal arrangement
  • Elmer Bernstein – conductor, orchestral arrangements
  • Emily Bernstein – orchestration
  • Tony Duino Black – assistant engineer – choir conductor, keyboards, programming, sound design, synthesizer, synthesizer programming
  • Bill Bottrell – drums, engineer, guitar, keyboards, mixing, percussion, producer, synthesizer
  • Jeff Bova – programming, synthesizer programming
  • Crystal Bowers – executive assistant – guest artist, background vocals
  • Miko Brando – staff
  • Bobby Brooks – drums, engineer, percussion, programming, sound design, synthesizer programming – percussion
  • Chauna Bryant – children's chorus, choir/chorus
  • Rodger Bumpass – background vocals, voiceover
  • Brad Buxer – arranger, keyboards, orchestration, percussion, piano, programming, sequencing arranger, sound effects, soundscape, synthesizer, synthesizer programming
  • Caleena Campbell – children's chorus, choir/chorus
  • Bruce Cannon – effects, special effects
  • Larry Carlton – guitar
  • Reeve Carney – children's chorus, choir/chorus
  • Reagans Carter – artwork, photography
  • Lafayette Carthon – keyboards, synthesizer
  • Jim Champagne – assistant engineer
  • Leon "Ndugu" Chancler – drums
  • Charlie Chaplin – tributee
  • Rosemary Chavira – staff
  • Wayne Cobham – synthesizer programming
  • Lester Cohen – artwork, photography
  • David Coleman – art direction
  • Jesse Corti – background vocals, voiceover
  • Richard Cottrell – engineer – vocal arrangement, background vocals
  • The Andraé Crouch Singers – background vocals – background vocals
  • Christopher Currell – guitar, percussion, rhythm arrangements, synclavier – percussion
  • Rick Dasher – assistant engineer
  • Eddie DeLena – engineer, mixing
  • Jeff DeMorris – assistant engineer
  • Carol Dennis – background vocals
  • Carolyn Dennis – background vocals
  • Nancy Donald – art direction – bass
  • Bill Easystone – assistant engineer
  • Felipe Elgueta – engineer
  • Sam Emerson – artwork, photography
  • Jonathan Exley – artwork, photography
  • Ashley Farrell – voiceover – drums, percussion
  • Angela Fisher – children's chorus, choir/chorus
  • Matt Forger – engineer, sound effects, soundscape, technical director – keyboards, orchestral arrangements, piano, producer, synthesizer, synthesizer arrangements
  • Jania Foxworth – children's chorus, choir/chorus
  • Simon Franglen – drums, keyboards, percussion, programming, synclavier programming, synthesizer, synthesizer programming
  • Leah Frazier – soloist
  • Harrison Funk – artwork, photography – guitar
  • Gus Garces – assistant engineer
  • Siedah Garrett – duet, guest artist, performer, primary artist, vocal harmony
  • Humberto Gatica – engineer
  • Peter Germansen – assistant engineer
  • Douglas Getschall – drum programming, programming
  • Kevin Gilbert – engineer, synthesizer programming – background vocals
  • Nate Giorgio – artwork, photography
  • Carl Glanville – assistant engineer
  • Greg Gorman – artwork, photography
  • Jackie Gouché – background vocals
  • Geoff Grace – orchestration
  • Crystal Grant – children's chorus
  • Gary Grant – flugelhorn, horn, trumpet
  • Nikisha Grier – children's chorus, choir/chorus
  • Doug Grigsby – bass
  • Bernie Grundman – mastering
  • Stephanie Gylden – assistant engineer – drums, percussion
  • Natalia Harris – children's chorus
  • Amy Hartman – staff
  • Gary Hearne – staff
  • Richard Heath – percussion
  • Gorrfried Helnwein – artwork, photography
  • Marlo Henderson – guitar – conductor, flugelhorn, horn, horn arrangements, string arrangements, synthesizer arrangements, trumpet
  • Steve Hodge – engineer, mixing
  • Rob Hoffman – assistant engineer, engineer, guitar, programming, synthesizer programming
  • Jean-marie horvat – Engineer
  • Rhonda Hoskins – children's chorus
  • How Now Brown Cow – percussion – guitar
  • Bunny Hull – background vocals
  • Kim Hutchcroft – flute, horn, saxophone
  • James Ingram – background vocals
  • Crystal Jackson – children's chorus, choir/chorus
  • Janet Jackson – duet vocals, producer, vocal arrangement, background vocals
  • Michael Jackson – arranger, director, drums, executive producer, guitar, horn arrangements, keyboard arrangements, keyboards, liner notes, percussion, primary artist, producer, rhythm arrangements, sequencing arranger, string arrangements, synthesizer, synthesizer arrangements, vocal arrangement, vocals, background vocals – guitar
  • Randy Jackson – percussion
  • Terry Jackson – bass
  • Jimmy Jam – arranger, drum programming, drums, keyboards, percussion, producer, programming, synthesizer, synthesizer bass, synthesizer programming, vocal arrangement
  • Mortonette Jenkins – background vocals
  • Augie Johnson – background vocals
  • Craig Johnson – assistant technical director, engineer, technical director
  • Kandy Johnson – children's chorus, choir/chorus
  • Kimberly Johnson – children's chorus, choir/chorus
  • Louis Johnson – bass
  • Marcus Johnson – staff
  • Brian Jones – children's chorus, choir/chorus
  • Caryn Jones – children's chorus – producer, rhythm arrangements, synthesizer arrangements, vocal arrangement
  • Nathan Kaproff – orchestral coordinator
  • Suzie Katayama – conductor – arranger, keyboards, producer, synthesizer, background vocals
  • Jacqueline Kennedy – liner notes – keyboards, synthesizer
  • Donn Landee – engineer
  • Christa Larson – background vocals
  • Julie Last – assistant engineer – artwork, photography
  • Jen Leigh – guitar
  • Jesse Levy – orchestral coordinator
  • Terry Lewis – arranger, drum programming, drums, keyboards, percussion, producer, programming, synthesizer, synthesizer bass, synthesizer programming, vocal arrangement
  • Becky Lopez – background vocals – drums, percussion, synthesizer bass, background vocals
  • Ron Lowe – assistant engineer
  • L.T.B. – rap, voiceover
  • Jeremy Lubbock – arranger, conductor – bass, guitar
  • Jonathan Mackey – piano
  • Brian Malouf – engineer
  • Johnny Mandel – arranger, string arrangements
  • Gregg Mangiafico – programming, synthesizer programming
  • Maurice La Marche – voiceover
  • Glen Marchese – assistant engineer
  • Anthony Marinelli – synthesizer programming
  • Gregory Martin – background vocals, voiceover – keyboards, synthesizer
  • Harry Maslin – engineer
  • Anna Mathias – background vocals, voiceover
  • Coi Mattison – children's chorus – duet vocals, vocal harmony
  • Michael McCary – background vocals
  • Linda McCrary – background vocals
  • Andres McKenzie – voiceover
  • Dawn McMillan – voiceover
  • Paulette McWilliams – background vocals
  • Daniel Medvedev – narrator
  • Jason Miles – programming, synthesizer programming
  • Jeff Mirinov – guitar
  • Peter Mokran – drum programming, engineer, programming, synthesizer programming
  • Nathan Morris – background vocals
  • Wanya Morris – background vocals
  • Wayne Nagin – staff
  • Carl Nappa – assistant engineer
  • David Nordahl – artwork, photography – guest artist, rap
  • David Nottingham – assistant engineer – guest artist, rap
  • Gary Olazabal – engineer
  • Claudio Ordenes – engineer – bass, keyboards, piano, rhythm arrangements, synthesizer, synthesizer arrangements
  • Marty Paich – conductor, orchestral arrangements
  • Chris Palmaro – synthesizer programming – guitar
  • Paul Peabody – soloist, violin – bass – fender rhodes, keyboards, rhythm arrangements, synthesizer, synthesizer bass – guitar
  • Scott Pittinsky – sound design, synthesizer programming – drums – keyboards, orchestral realizations, programming, synthesizer, synthesizer programming
  • Crystal Pounds – children's chorus, choir/chorus – bass
  • Markita Prescott – soloist – rap
  • Phil Proctor – background vocals
  • Phillip G. Proctor – voiceover
  • Trevor Rabin – guitar – quotation author
  • William Frank "Bill" Reichenbach Jr. – horn, trombone
  • Rene – drums, keyboards, percussion, producer, synthesizer
  • Seth Riggs – vocal consultant
  • Teddy Riley – engineer, keyboards, mixing, producer, rhythm arrangements, synthesizer, synthesizer arrangements
  • Chris Roberts – assistant engineer – drums – guitar
  • Matthew Rolston – artwork, photography
  • Bill Ross – conductor, orchestral arrangements
  • Darryl Ross – sound design, synthesizer programming
  • William Ross – conductor
  • Keith Rouster – bass
  • Thom Russo – technical director
  • Grace Rwaramba – staff
  • Annette Sanders – choir conductor
  • Andrew Scheps – drum programming, engineer, programming, sound effects, soundscape, synclavier programming, synthesizer programming
  • Arnie Schulze – programming, synthesizer programming
  • Seawind Horns – horn
  • Jamie Seyberth – assistant engineer
  • Scott "House" Shaffer – staff
  • Joshua Shapera – assistant engineer
  • Alan Shearman – background vocals, voiceover
  • Rick Sheppard – programming, synthesizer programming
  • Susan Silo – voiceover – guest artist, guitar
  • Greg Smith – keyboards, synthesizer – hammond b3, organ (hammond), soloist
  • Rachel Smith – production coordination – liner notes
  • Tracy Spindler – children's chorus, choir/chorus
  • Brandi Stewart – children's chorus, choir/chorus
  • Shawn Stockman – background vocals
  • Brad Sundberg – engineer, mixing, technical director
  • Gabriel Sutter – assistant engineer
  • Bruce Swedien – arranger, drums, effects, engineer, liner notes, mixing, percussion, producer, sound effects, soundscape, special effects
  • Roberta Swedien – sound design, synthesizer programming
  • Evvy Tavasci – assistant, executive administrator – liner notes, quotation author
  • Jeff Taylor – assistant engineer – keyboards, rhythm arrangements, synthesizer, synthesizer arrangements, vocal arrangement
  • Chris Theis – assistant engineer – guitar
  • Jonathon Ungar – children's chorus – guest artist, guitar
  • John VanNest – engineer
  • Llyswen Vaughan – sample clearance
  • Suzy Vaughan – sample clearance
  • Stephan Vaughn – artwork, photography – background vocals
  • Brian Vibberts – assistant engineer
  • Gerald Vinci – concert master
  • Diana Walczak – sculpture – keyboards, synthesizer
  • Stephen Walker – art direction
  • Ben Wallach – assistant engineer
  • Dan Wallin – engineer
  • Julia Waters – background vocals
  • Maxine Waters – background vocals
  • Oren Waters – background vocals
  • Bobby Watson – bass
  • Dave Way – engineer, mixing – artwork, photography
  • Ed Wiesnieski – narrator – drums, keyboards, percussion, programming, sound design, sound effects, soundscape, synthesizer, synthesizer programming
  • Maxine Willard Waters – background vocals
  • Buddy Williams – drums, percussion
  • David Williams – guitar
  • Larry Williams – flute, horn, saxophone, synthesizer programming
  • Zedric Williams – background vocals – background vocals
  • Hattie Winston – background vocals, voiceover
  • Colin Wolfe – bass
  • Bill Wolfer – keyboards, synthesizer, synthesizer programming
  • David "Hawk" Wolinski – fender rhodes
  • Ben Wright – string arrangements
  • James "Big Jim" Wright – organ, piano
  • Jimmy Wright – organ, piano
  • Charity Young – children's chorus, choir/chorus

Weekly charts Edit

Charts (1995–2009) Peak
Position
Argentinian Albums (CAPIF) [99] 2
Australian Albums (ARIA) [100] 1
Austrian Albums (Ö3 Austria) [101] 2
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Flanders) [102] 1
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Wallonia) [103] 1
Brazilian Albums (ABPD) [104] 1
Canadian Albums (RPM) [105] 1
Canadian Albums (The Record) [99] 1
Chilean Albums (IFPI) [106] 1
Czech Albums (IFPI) [107] 13
Danish Albums (Hitlisten) [108] 1
Dutch Albums (Album Top 100) [109] 1
European Albums (Top 100) [99] 1
Finnish Albums (IFPI) [110] 2
French Albums (SNEP) [110] 1
German Albums (Offizielle Top 100) [111] 1
Hungarian Albums (MAHASZ) [112] 4
Irish Albums (IRMA) [108] 1
Italian Albums (FIMI) [110] 1
Japanese Albums (Oricon) [113] 3
Mexican Albums (Top 100 Mexico) [114] 9
New Zealand Albums (RMNZ) [115] 1
Norwegian Albums (VG-lista) [116] 1
Portuguese Albums (AFP) [99] 2
Scottish Albums (OCC) [117] 1
Spanish Albums (PROMUSICAE) [110] 2
Swedish Albums (Sverigetopplistan) [118] 3
Swiss Albums (Schweizer Hitparade) [119] 1
UK Albums (OCC) [120] 1
UK R&B Albums (OCC) [121] 1
US Billboard 200 [122] 1
US Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums (Billboard) [123] 1

Year-end charts Edit

Chart (1995) Position
Australian Albums (ARIA) [124] 4
Austrian Albums (Ö3 Austria) [125] 18
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Flanders) [126] 12
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Wallonia) [127] 3
Canadian Albums (RPM) [128] 11
Dutch Albums (Album Top 100) [129] 13
European Top 100 Albums (Music & Media) [130] 8
French Albums (SNEP) [131] 3
German Albums (Offizielle Top 100) [132] 12
New Zealand Albums (RMNZ) [133] 5
Swedish Albums (Sverigetopplistan) [134] 35
Swiss Albums (Schweizer Hitparade) [135] 8
UK Albums (OCC) [136] 5
US Billboard 200 [137] 32
US Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums (Billboard) [138] 28
Chart (1996) Position
Australian Albums (ARIA) [139] 13
Austrian Albums (Ö3 Austria) [140] 23
Dutch Albums (Album Top 100) [141] 7
European Top 100 Albums (Music & Media) [142] 7
French Albums (IFOP) [143] 8
German Albums (Offizielle Top 100) [144] 11
New Zealand Albums (RMNZ) [145] 13
Swedish Albums (Sverigetopplistan) [146] 85
Swiss Albums (Schweizer Hitparade) [147] 15
US Billboard 200 [148] 177
Chart (1997) Position
Australian Albums (ARIA) [149] 66
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Flanders) [150] 79
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Wallonia) [151] 65
Dutch Albums (Album Top 100) [152] 57
European Top 100 Albums (Music & Media) [153] 90
French Albums (SNEP) [154] 40
German Albums (Offizielle Top 100) [155] 80
New Zealand Albums (RMNZ) [156] 13
Chart (2003) Position
UK Albums (OCC) [157] 119
Chart (2009) Position
German Albums (Offizielle Top 100) [158] 87

* Sales figures based on certification alone.
^ Shipments figures based on certification alone.
Sales+streaming figures based on certification alone.

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  256. "Jaaroverzichten 1997". Ultratop (in Dutch) . Retrieved December 19, 2020 .
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  262. "Eurochart Top 100 Albums 1997" (PDF) . Billboard . Retrieved November 1, 2019 .
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  266. "Top 100 Album-Jahrecharts". Offiziellecharts.de (in German) . Retrieved December 17, 2020 .
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  268. "Top Selling Albums of 1997". The Official NZ Music Charts . Retrieved December 17, 2020 .
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  270. "The Official UK Albums Chart 2003" (PDF) . UKChartsPlus . Retrieved April 4, 2021 .
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  274. "Discos de oro y platino" (in Spanish). Cámara Argentina de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011 . Retrieved May 20, 2019 .
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  276. "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 1997 Albums". Australian Recording Industry Association. Archived from the original on August 22, 2020 . Retrieved October 26, 2014 .
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  278. "Austrian album certifications – Michael Jackson – History-Past, Present & Future, Book 1" (in German). IFPI Austria . Retrieved October 26, 2014 .
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  280. "Ultratop − Goud en Platina – albums 1996". Ultratop. Hung Medien . Retrieved February 4, 2019 .
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  282. Rocha, Daniel (November 6, 1996). "Música brasileira tem 72% do mercado". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Grupo Folha. Archived from the original on January 7, 2006 . Retrieved October 19, 2020 .
  283. ^
  284. "Brazilian album certifications – Michael Jackson – HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I" (in Portuguese). Pro-Música Brasil . Retrieved October 26, 2014 .
  285. ^
  286. "Canadian album certifications – Michael Jackson – HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I". Music Canada . Retrieved October 26, 2014 .
  287. ^Jackson's Platinum History (P. 28)
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  289. Legge, Michelle (August 31, 1996). "Global Music Pulse - Czech Republic". Billboard. p. 101 . Retrieved October 23, 2020 – via Google Books. The company believes that platinum sales (50,000 units)…
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  293. "Michael Jackson" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland . Retrieved January 25, 2017 .
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  295. "InfoDisc : Les Meilleurs Ventes d'Albums "Tout Temps" (33 T. / Cd / Téléchargement)".
  296. ^
  297. "French album certifications – Michael Jackson – HIStory past present ant future" (in French). InfoDisc . Retrieved December 27, 2018 . Select MICHAEL JACKSON and click OK.
  298. ^
  299. "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Michael Jackson 'HIStory - Past, Present And Future - Book')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie . Retrieved October 26, 2014 .
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  301. "Italian album certifications – Michael Jackson – HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I" (in Italian). Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana . Retrieved October 22, 2020 . Select "2009" in the "Anno" drop-down menu. Select "HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I" in the "Filtra" field. Select "Album e Compilation" under "Sezione".
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  303. "Japanese album certifications – Michael Jackson – HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I" (in Japanese). Recording Industry Association of Japan . Retrieved October 26, 2014 . Select 1995年7月 on the drop-down menu
  304. ^
  305. "Certificaciones" (in Spanish). Asociación Mexicana de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas . Retrieved October 26, 2014 . Type Michael Jackson in the box under the ARTISTA column heading and HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I in the box under TÍTULO
  306. ^
  307. "Dutch album certifications – Michael Jackson – HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I" (in Dutch). Nederlandse Vereniging van Producenten en Importeurs van beeld- en geluidsdragers . Retrieved October 26, 2014 . Enter HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I in the "Artiest of titel" box.
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  309. "New Zealand album certifications – Michael Jackson – HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I". Recorded Music NZ . Retrieved November 8, 2015 .
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  313. "Wyróżnienia - Platynowe płyty CD - Archiwum - Przyznane w 1996 roku" (in Polish). Polish Society of the Phonographic Industry . Retrieved April 18, 2021 .
  314. ^Korea Chart1, February 29, 1996
  315. ^Korea Sales, December 26, 1996
  316. ^
  317. Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (in Spanish) (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. p. 942. ISBN84-8048-639-2 .
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  319. "Guld- och Platinacertifikat − År 1987−1998" (PDF) (in Swedish). IFPI Sweden. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 17, 2011 . Retrieved October 26, 2014 .
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  321. "The Official Swiss Charts and Music Community: Awards (Michael Jackson 'History')". IFPI Switzerland. Hung Medien . Retrieved October 26, 2014 .
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  323. 認證紀錄 [Certifications Awarded] (in Chinese). Recording Industry Foundation in Taiwan.
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  325. "British album certifications – Michael Jackson – HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I". British Phonographic Industry . Retrieved October 26, 2014 .
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  327. "British album certifications – Michael Jackson – Greatest Hits - History Vol 1". British Phonographic Industry . Retrieved October 26, 2014 .
  328. ^
  329. "American album certifications – Michael Jackson – HISTORY". Recording Industry Association of America . Retrieved October 10, 2019 . If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH.
  330. ^
  331. "American album certifications – Michael Jackson – Greatest Hits: History Volume 1". Recording Industry Association of America . Retrieved October 26, 2014 . If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH.
  332. ^
  333. "IFPI Platinum Europe Awards – 1996". International Federation of the Phonographic Industry.
  • George, Nelson (2004). Michael Jackson: The Ultimate Collection. Sony BMG.
  • Grant, Adrian (2009). Michael Jackson: The Visual Documentary. Omnibus Press. ISBN978-1-84938-261-8 .
  • Pratt, Douglas (2005). Doug Pratt's DVD: Movies, Television, Music, Art, Adult, and More!. UNET 2 Corporation. ISBN1-932916-01-6 .

60 ms 4.1% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getEntityStatements 40 ms 2.7% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::plain 40 ms 2.7% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::gsub 40 ms 2.7% select_one 40 ms 2.7% [others] 340 ms 23.0% Number of Wikibase entities loaded: 1/400 -->


At The Controls: The Smithsonian's Air & Space Museum Looks At Cockpits Opens at the California Oil Museum, Santa Paula, CA, on Feb 11, 2007

Santa Paula, CA (PRWEB) January 5, 2007

"AT THE CONTROLS: The Smithsonian's Air & Space Museum Looks At Cockpits."

The traveling exhibit from the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum, "At The Controls," will open with a reception from 1 to 3 p.m., Sunday, February 11, 2007, at the City of Santa Paula's California Oil Museum (1001 E. Main St., Santa Paula, 805-933-0076, $4 Adults, $3 Seniors, $1 Children). All are welcome and refreshments will be served. The exhibit presents extraordinary 4- by 7-foot color images of the cockpits of the world's most famous aircraft and space vehicles (http://www.sites.si.edu/exhibitions/exhibits/controls/main.htm). The Oil Museum is adding an additional component to the exhibit, an Aviation Cockpit Demonstrator from the NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia. The exhibit runs through Sunday, June 24, 2007.

The "At the Controls" exhibition features 20 large-format color photographs of historically significant cockpits, such as the Wright brothers' 1903 Flyer the "Enola Gay," a Boeing B-29 Superfortress the Mercury "Friendship 7" and the space shuttle "Columbia" (a complete list is below). Using a 4 by 5 camera with 120-degree wide-angle lens and a variety of lighting techniques, photographers Eric F. Long and Mark Avino have created unique images that contrast the simplicity and complexity of cockpits throughout aviation history.

Measuring approximately 4 by 7 feet, the images depict in rich and precise detail the evolution of the controls, instruments and displays used to fly these air and spacecraft. The cockpits in the exhibition were selected because their instrumentation panels vividly illustrate the development and refinement of aviation technology. Additional information and complete views of the air and spacecraft accompany each photograph.

The Aviation Cockpit Demonstrator from the NASA Langley Research Center will enable visitors to see what it is like to fly a plane, even in bad weather. The one-seat interactive demonstrator incorporates NASA's weather-in-the-cockpit technology and is handicapped-accessible (http://oea.larc.nasa.gov/Exhibits/details.cfm?id=222).

A companion to the exhibition, "At the Controls: The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Book of Cockpits," edited by Thomas M. Alison and Dana Bell, includes 45 of these images of aviation cockpits. The book is available through Boston Mills Press ($39.95).

"At the Controls: The Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum Looks at Cockpits" was developed by SITES and the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum. Eric Long is a senior photographer for the Smithsonian's Office of Imaging, Printing, and Photography at the National Air and Space Museum. During his 19-year career at the Smithsonian Institution, he has documented collections, exhibits and events for museum research and publications, and has participated in historical documentations including three presidential inaugurations and an oral history of Southern agriculture. Mark Avino is a chief photographer for the Office of Imaging, Printing, and Photography at the Air and Space Museum. Also with the Smithsonian Institution for 19 years, Avino has directed and supervised staff photographers who specialize in reproduction and documentation of the museum's collections, created exhibition displays, and arranged special research and publications events. Avino has also served as guest speaker and judge for Gallaudet University Department of Photography photo contests.

The Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum memorializes the national development of aviation and space flight. The museum maintains the largest -- more than 33,500 objects -- and most diverse collection of historic air and spacecraft in the world. For more information, please visit http://www.nasm.edu.

Each year, SITES shares the wealth of Smithsonian collections and research programs with millions of people outside of Washington, D.C. One of the Smithsonian's four National Programs, SITES makes available a wide range of exhibitions about art, science and history, which are shown not only in museums but also wherever people live, work and play, including libraries, science centers, historical societies, community centers, botanical gardens, schools and shopping malls.

Photo 1: Spirit of St Louis.jpg - In the cockpit of the Spirit of St. Louis, Charles Lindbergh flew the first trans-Atlantic light from New York to Paris in 1927. The retractable periscope (top center of photo) gave him forward visibility. He spend 33 hours in the cockpit before completing the flight.

Photo 2: Mustang,jpg - The P-51 Mustang was considered the finest fighter plane of World War II. Inside the cockpit, the gun trigger is on the control stick (lower center) and the canopy ejection control is the horizontal red level on the right (right center of photo).

Photo 3: Columbia.jpg - The space shuttle Columbia was launched in 1981 and was considered the flagship of the space shuttle fleet. It flew 28 flights before it disintegrated on re-entry over Texas in 2003. All seven crewmembers aboard perished. In the cockpit, the shuttle commander sat to the left of the center console and the pilot sat on the right side. There were more than 2,000 switches, buttons, lights, and keypads in the cockpit.

What: "AT THE CONTROLS: The Smithsonian's National Air & Space Museum Looks At Cockpits"

Where: California Oil Museum, 1001 East Main Street, Santa Paula

Opening Reception: 1 - 3 p.m., Sunday, Feb 11, 2006

Exhibit Dates: Feb 11 through Jun 24

Museum Hours: Wednesday through Sunday from 10 to 4

Admission: $4 Adults, $3 Seniors and $1 Youth, Free for Members

At the Controls: The Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum Looks at Cockpits was developed by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES) and the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum.

All photographs by Mark Avino and Eric Long. Courtesy Smithsonian Institution.


The Edsel Proved Why You Should Never Design a Car by Comittee

Ford had big ambitions for Edsel. Unfortunately, they were too big.

Ford in the 1950s was nothing if not ambitious. Unfortunately, this ambition gave birth to the Edsel, whose name became synonymous with abject corporate failure after the nascent brand was killed in 1959. The Edsel's short history makes a fascinating cautionary tale for anyone in business&ndashnot just the car industry.

Our pals at Regular Car Reviews got into the history of Edsel in a new documentary podcast. It's a great listen for anyone interested in the car business.

Under the leadership of Henry Ford II, the Ford Motor Company hired some of the brightest minds in America as executives. This group, dubbed the Whiz Kids, wanted to increase Ford's market share in the U.S. with a new brand to slot between Ford and Mercury.

Only trouble is, they couldn't come up with a good name. After literally thousands of names were suggested, they eventually settled on Edsel, the first name of Henry Ford's son, Henry II's father&ndash"settled" being the key word here. They threw lots of new technology at the Edsel too, but no one really had a clear vision for what the car was supposed to be. To make matters worse, the first Edsels built were plagued with production problems, enraging dealers.

The public didn't really understand this bizarrely-styled, badly-named, poorly-conceived car either. Whatever small chance of success the Edsel had when it debuted in 1958 was killed by an economic recession. To their credit, Ford executives realized how much of a failure they had on their hands, killing the Edsel brand at the end of 1959.

Bad circumstances played a big role in the Edsel's demise, but in hindsight, it seems the car was doomed from the start. Ford had a wealth of smart executives at the time, but with too many hands working on the Edsel, the project had no direction.

It's no coincidence that world's most successful cars&ndashthe Model T, the Beetle, the Mini, and others&ndashwere conceived by individuals or small groups. The more people working on a car, the more its intent gets muddied. Even if you have the brightest, best-intentioned minds in the business.


'Miracle Workers: Oregon Trail' Teaser for New Season Goes West, Reveals Release Date

The best comedy show on TV is back with a new setting.

After exploring the weird hilarity of factory workers in heaven, and the comedic intricacies of being a shitshoveler in the Dark Ages, Miracle Workers is heading West in its third season, aptly titled Miracle Workers: Oregon Trail.

The third season of the TBS anthology comedy will once again follow Daniel Radcliffe, Steve Buscemi, Geraldine Viswanathan and Karan Soni, playing new characters and in a new setting. This time, they experience the misery, the promise, the merriment and all the perils of the American Old West.

Miracle Workers has proven to be one of the best new comedies of the past couple of years, and a criminally underseen show. The cast is impeccable, and the anthology format allows for creator Simon Rich and the writers team to find comedy in the strangest of places. Where the first season was an offbeat yet endearing alternative to the similarly-set The Good Place, season 2 really allowed the premise to shine by looking at a terrible era of human history and add some Monty Python-style comedy to it, like having Buscemi play a literal shitshoveler. Moving the action to the awfulness of the Oregon Trail seems like a no-brainer for this third season.

Here's the synopsis for Miracle Workers: Oregon Trail:

"The third season of the top-rated anthology comedy series &ldquoMiracle Workers,&rdquo this time transporting cast members Daniel Radcliffe, Steve Buscemi, Geraldine Viswanathan and Karan Soni to the American Old West. Set in the year 1844, the new season of &ldquoMiracle Workers&rdquo will follow an idealistic small-town preacher (Radcliffe) who teams up with a wanted outlaw (Buscemi) and an adventurous prairie wife (Viswanathan) to lead a wagon train west on the Oregon Trail across an American landscape which, much like today, is fraught with both promise and peril."

Miracle Workers: Oregon Trail premieres July 13 on TBS. Watch the teaser below:


Stephen King's Chapelwaite Series Gets First Teaser

An adaptation of Stephen King's novella Jerusalem's Lot has been adapted into a TV series for EPIX, with the network unveiling the first teaser for Chapelwaite, which you can see above. The series doesn't yet have an official release date, though the network notes that fans can expect it later this summer, with the reveal of this teaser sure to build excitement for the eventual release of the highly anticipated and surely unsettling series. The new series stars Adrien Brody and Emily Hampshire. Check out the teaser above before Chapelwaite premieres on EPIX sometime later this summer.

Chapelwaite is set in the 1850s and follows Captain Charles Boone (Brody), who relocates his family of three children to his ancestral home in the small, seemingly sleepy town of Preacher&rsquos Corners, Maine after his wife dies at sea. However, Charles will soon have to confront the secrets of his family&rsquos sordid history, and fight to end the darkness that has plagued the Boones for generations.

Star Hampshire, who most fans know from her time on the comedy Schitt's Creek, previously detailed her excitement about the project.

"It's based on the short story by Stephen King that was the prequel to Salem's Lot. I'm just so excited about it, because I love wearing corsets. It is set in 1850, and to go from Stevie's [on Schitt's Creek's] plaids to this out of her time, educated woman in 1850 wearing corsets, is the most exciting thing ever," Hampshire shared with ComicBook.com. "I love it. Except it's been postponed, of course. I was on my way to shoot that when the world started ending, when the apocalypse happened. I can't wait for that to start."

She continued, "And it's with Adrien Brody. And the producer Donald De Line, he's the loveliest in the world. And it actually reminds me of Jeffrey Katzenberg, who's behind Quibi. It's really rare, but there's certain people who are these massive producers who are the most lovely, real, genuine people. Jeffrey Katzenberg's like that. I got an email from him the other day saying, 'Congratulations on the launch of this thing.' And I'm like, 'It's your thing!' I like being part of a film scene where the person at the top is a really good person. I guess that's come from Dan [Levy] working on Schitt's [Creek] and stuff. It's made me just want to work with people like that, so it's hard to go back."

Stay tuned for details on Chapelwaite.

Are you looking forward to the new series? Let us know in the comments below or contact Patrick Cavanaugh directly on Twitter to talk all things Star Wars and horror!


Twin Disc Power Take-Offs

The following is a partial list of Twin Disc Rockford PTO Clutch series that Palmer Johnson Power Systems provides parts for and repairs:

CA110

CA110 Specifications

Maximum input torque (lb-ft), Class I - 450

CA110 Overview

  • Off-the-shelf availability
  • Proven design tailored to the industry
  • Creates suitable application torque
  • Broader horsepower coverage up to 400 hp
  • Sealed for life ball type main bearing
  • Built-in hex nut eases adjustment verification
  • Limited 2-year warranty
  • Made in USA

CA210

CA210 Specifications

Maximum input torque (lb-ft), Class I - 900

CA210 Overview

  • Off-the-shelf availability
  • Proven design tailored to the industry
  • Creates suitable application torque
  • Broader horsepower coverage up to 400 hp
  • Sealed for life ball type main bearing
  • Built-in hex nut eases adjustment verification
  • Limited 2-year warranty
  • Made in USA

CX Series

CX Series Specifications

Popular BOMs

CX107P401, CX107P501, CX107P504, CX107P507, CX107P601

CX108P401, CX108P403, CX108P501

CX110P201, CX110P301, CX110P302, CX110P401

CX Series Overview

  • Available in sizes 6.5″ through 11.5″
  • Ball type main bearing
  • Creates suitable application torque capacity
  • Optional sintered iron plates*
  • Built-in hex nut
  • Suitable for in-line and side load applications
  • Creates 25% higher torque capacity*
  • Eases adjustment verification

IB 314IL

IB 314IL Specifications

  • Maximum Input Torque (lb-ft) Class I - 3040
  • Clutch Maximum HP rating
    • Class II - 741
    • Class III - 494
    • Class IV - 371

    IB 314IL Overview

    • Sealed-for-life pilot bearing
    • Ventilated center plates and drive ring
    • Optional sintered iron plates
    • Built-in hex nut
    • Less maintenance
    • Improved heat dissipation
    • Creates 25% higher torque capacity
    • Eases adjustment verification

    IB214P

    IB214P Specifications

    • Maximum Input Torque (lb-ft) Class I - 1620
    • Clutch Maximum HP rating
      • Class II - 395
      • Class III - 264
      • Class IV - 197

      IB214P Overview

      • Available in sizes 11.5″ through 21.0″
      • Tapered roller main bearings
      • Optional sintered iron plates
      • Optional ball bearing throw out
      • Buit-in hex nut
      • Creates suitable application torque capacity
      • More suitable for side load applications
      • Allow for more frequent engagements
      • Creates 25% higher torque capacity
      • Eases adjustment verification

      IB314P

      IB314P Specifications

      • Maximum Input Torque (lb-ft) Class I - 3040
      • Clutch Maximum HP rating
        • Class II - 741
        • Class III - 494
        • Class IV - 371

        IB314P Overview

        • Tapered roller main bearings
        • Sealed-for-life pilot bearing
        • Ventilated center plates and drive ring
        • Optional sintered iron plates
        • Buit-in hex nut
        • More suitable for side load applications
        • Less maintenance
        • Improved heat dissipation
        • Creates 25% higher torque capacity
        • Eases adjustment verification

        IB318IL

        IB318IL Specifications

        • Maximum Input Torque (lb-ft) Class I - 7500
        • Clutch Maximum HP rating
          • Class II - 1224
          • Class III - 816
          • Class IV - 612

          IB318IL Overview

          • Optional sintered iron plates
          • Built in hex nut
          • Ventilated center plates & driving ring
          • Sealed for life pilot bearing
          • Creates 25% higher torque capacity

          IB318P0

          IB318P0 Specifications

          • Maximum Input Torque (lb-ft) Class I - 7500
          • Clutch Maximum HP rating
            • Class II - 1224
            • Class III - 816
            • Class IV - 612

            IB318P0 Overview

            • Sealed-for-life pilot bearing
            • Ventilated center plates and drive ring
            • Optional sintered iron plates
            • Buit-in hex nut
            • Less maintenance
            • Improved heat dissipation
            • Creates 25% higher torque capacity
            • Eases adjustment verification

            IB321IL

            IB321IL Specifications

            • Maximum Input Torque (lb-ft) Class I - 8400
            • Clutch Maximum HP rating
              • Class II - 1667
              • Class III - 1111
              • Class IV - 834

              IB321IL Overview

              • Sealed-for-life pilot bearing
              • Ventilated center plates and drive ring
              • Optional sintered iron plates
              • Buit-in hex nut
              • Less maintenance
              • Improved heat dissipation
              • Creates 25% higher torque capacity
              • Eases adjustment verification

              IB321P

              IB321P Specifications

              • Maximum Input Torque (lb-ft) Class I - 8400
              • Clutch Maximum HP rating
                • Class II - 1667
                • Class III - 1111
                • Class IV - 834

                IB321P Overview

                • Tapered roller main bearings
                • Sealed for life pilot bearing
                • Ventilated center plates and drive ring
                • Optional sintered iron plates
                • Built-in hex nut
                • More suitable for side load applications
                • Less maintenance
                • Improved heat dissipation
                • Creates 25% higher torque capacity
                • Eases adjustment verification

                PO314S

                PO314S Overview

                • Optional sintered iron plates
                • No pilot bearing
                • Air actuated
                • Straddle-bearing design
                • Creates 25% higher torque capacity
                • Ease of installation
                • Remote actuation
                • Clutch adjustment not required
                • Allows for maximum side load capability

                PO318S

                PO318S Overview

                • Optional sintered iron plates
                • No pilot bearing
                • Air actuated
                • Straddle-bearing design
                • Creates 25% higher torque capacity
                • Ease of installation
                • Remote actuation
                • Clutch adjustment not required
                • Allows for maximum side load capability

                RC214P | RC314P

                RC214P | RC314P Overview

                The RC is a series of hydraulically actuated dry-clutch Power Take Offs. Key design features of the RC PTO allow for installation in applications where the PTO may otherwise be difficult to service. An advanced control system can be used for “soft-starting” large inertia loads.

                FEATURES & BENEFITS:
                • Hydraulically actuated
                • Self-adjusting clutch
                • Oil lubricated tapered roller main bearings
                • No pilot bearing required
                • Advanced controls for high inertia loads
                • Optional sintered iron and composite plates
                • Suitable for side load and in-line
                applications
                • Hydraulic valve & display options

                RO Series

                RO Series Overview


                1933: How did Hitler Win the Elections in Germany?

                The last parliamentary elections before the end of World War II were held in Germany on this day. The goal of Hitler’s Nazi Party (NSDAP) was to achieve a majority, in order to consolidate their newly-won power. Namely, in January that year Hitler had become the German chancellor, despite the fact that he did not have an absolute majority in parliament (the social-democrats and communists together had more representatives).

                Hitler used the Reichstag (German parliament building), done by a communist-pyromaniac, in order to blame all communists and put them outside the law. Despite their best efforts, the Nazis still didn’t manage to win the absolute majority at these elections. They received 43.91% of the votes. The SPD (the social-democrat party, which still exists today) came in second with 18.25%, while the communists were third with 12.32%.

                It is interesting to observe the allocation of votes in Germany according to region. Namely, the Nazis generally did not achieve a majority in electoral units which were predominantly Catholic, and indeed many members of the Church actively opposed the Nazis.

                Even so, Hitler’s electoral results were enough to pass the notorious Enabling Act of 1933 (German: Ermächtigungsgesetz), which allowed him and his government to enact laws without the consent of the parliament. This soon led to the abolishment of democracy and the introduction of the Nazi dictatorship.


                Watch the video: Steven Spielbergs West Side Story. Official Teaser. 20th Century Studios (January 2022).